Sweepstakes, lottery and prize scams have not lessened their financial and emotional harm, despite concerted law-enforcement efforts, according to the latest data from Better Business Bureau, the Federal Trade Commission and the Internet Crime Complaint Center.

This fraud is especially devastating to older adults in the United States and Canada. BBB cautions this group to be particularly vigilant about recognizing and avoiding tactics used by scammers to prey on people during the COVID-19 crisis.

BBB issued an in-depth investigative study on sweepstakes and lottery scams in June 2018. In the two years since that report was issued, BBB Scam Tracker reports declined somewhat, but complaints to the FTC and IC3 have held fairly steady, both in number and in reported financial losses.

Adults age 65 and older remain overwhelmingly the largest group victimized by these scams.

Of the 4,417 sweepstakes and lottery scams reported to BBB Scam Tracker since 2018, nearly half, or 1,980, came from victims over the age of 65. This age group lost $2.52 million of the $3.1 million in losses reported to Scam Tracker, representing more than 80 percent of money lost by Americans and Canadians to this fraud.

Combined FTC and IC3 complaints reflect losses of $112 million in 2017, $182.6 million in 2018 and $170.4 million in 2019.

Scammers have updated their sales pitches to potential victims to include COVID-19 twists. According to Scam Tracker reports, scammers are discussing supposed COVID-19 safety precautions for prize delivery and attributing delays in awarding prizes to the pandemic.

One impostor scam, fraudulently using the Publisher Clearing House name in connection with a bogus COVID-19 Census Grant, allows targeted victims to choose their winnings by the amount of fees they are willing to pay. Using social media, scammers publish a list of supposed winners and invite people whose names are not on the list to provide personal information and choose their award level.

Many sweepstakes and lottery scams continue to originate from Jamaica, as reported in the original study. This is particularly true of cold calls over the phone. However, scammers may reach out by phone, email, U.S Postal Service or even social media.

U.S. postal inspectors say now many victims are being instructed to mail cash to scammers. Besides offering fake cash prizes, scammers may lure victims by also claiming victims will receive luxury cars, laptops or other high-end merchandise.

The U.S. Department of Justice has been active in targeting and prosecuting scams that victimize seniors. It conducts an annual Elder Fraud Sweep, which netted more than 400 accused scammers worldwide in 2020 and more than $1 billion in reported financial losses. The Transnational Elder Fraud Strike Force, a joint effort by several federal agencies, was established in 2019 and is aggressively prosecuting defendants caught in the sweep.

Here are some tips for detecting and avoiding sweepstakes, lottery or prize scams:

• You’ve got to play to win. A notification that you have won a prize in a contest you do not remember entering should be a red flag. If you regularly enter contests or sweepstakes, keep track of your entries so you can easily can check to see if you actually entered a contest that contacts you.

• True lotteries or sweepstakes don’t ask for money. If they want money for taxes, for themselves or a third party, it most likely is a scam.

• Call the lottery or sweepstakes company directly to see if you won. According to Publishers Clearing House, it does conduct sweepstakes but does not call or email people in advance to tell them they’ve won a major prize and does not ask for money. Report PCH imposters to the company hotline at 800-392-4190.

• Check to see if you won a lottery. Call the North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries at 440-361-7962 or your local state lottery agency.

• Do an internet search of the company, name or phone number of the person who contacted you. Law-enforcement officials do not call and award prizes. If you think you have been contacted by law enforcement, verify the identity of the caller and do not send money.

• Talk to a trusted family member or your bank.

To report a sweepstakes, lottery or prize scam, go to BBB’s Scam Tracker at bbb.org/scamtracker.

Reanna Smith-Hamblin is president and CEO of the Better Business chapter serving this region. She can be reached at 502-588-0043 or rsmith-hamblin@bbb.louisville.org.